**Compound annual growth (CAGR) calculator**

Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) represents the average yearly growth of an investment spanning a time frame exceeding one year.

It stands as one of the most precise methods to compute and ascertain returns for singular assets, investment collections, and any entity that can experience fluctuations in value over time.

### NPV calculator

**Net Present Value**(NPV) serves as a crucial metric in evaluating the worth of potential pharmaceutical products and steering decisions throughout the course of drug development initiatives. It provides a forecast of a drug’s potential profitability, taking into account the present value of future cash flows, thus employing a discounted cash flow methodology.

**Formula:**
$NPV = \sum_{t=0}^{n} \frac{R_t}{(1+i)^t} – C_0$

- (C_0) is the initial investment

- (R_t) is the net cash inflow-outflows during a single period t

- (i) is the discount rate or rate of return that could be earned in alternative investments

- (t) is the number of time periods

- (n) is the total number of time periods

### ROI calculator

Return on investment, or ROI, is a financial metric that quantifies the performance of an investment.

It does this by comparing the profit or loss made from the investment to its initial cost.

This valuable metric aids in evaluating the potential yield of investments, such as equities or business initiatives.

Typically expressed as a percentage, the ROI can be computed using a designated formula. This calculator uses the following formula:

**Risk-to-reward calculator**

Understanding your risk-to-reward profile is critical to successful investing. This calculator will paint a quantitative picture of a stock’s upside and downside potentials.